An earthquake (also known as a quake, tremor or temblor) is the result of a sudden release of energy in the Earth's crust that creates seismic waves.
A tsunami also called a tsunami wave train, and at one time incorrectly referred to as a tidal wave, is a series of water waves caused by the displacement of a large volume of a body of water, usually an ocean, though it can occur in large lakes.
A tornado (often referred to as a twister or, erroneously, a cyclone) is a violent, dangerous, rotating column of air that is in contact with both the surface of the earth and a cumulonimbus cloud or, in rare cases, the base of a cumulus cloud.
A flood is an overflow of an expanse of water that submerges land. The EU Floods directive defines a flood as a temporary covering by water of land not normally covered by water
Volcanoes can cause widespread destruction and consequent disaster through several ways. The effects include the volcanic eruption itself that may cause harm following the explosion of the volcano or the fall of rock.
Posted by Disaster
1293: Kamakura, Japan
Magnitude 7.1 Quake and tsunami hit Kamakura, Japan's de facto capital, killing 23,000 after resulting fires.
1303: Eastern Mediterranean
A team from Southern Cross University in Lismore, New South Wales, Australia, has found geological evidence of five tsunamis that have hit Greece over the past 2000 years. "Most were small and local, but in 1303 a larger one hit Crete, Rhodes, Alexandria and Acre in Palestine."
1361: Shōhei Nankai, Japan
On Aug 3 of the Shōhei era, a 8.4 Nankaido quake and tsunami hit, with 660 deaths, 1700 houses destroyed. There was a strong earthquake in Tokushima, Osaka, Wakayama, and Nara Prefectures and on Awaji Island. A tsunami was observed on the coast of Tokushima and Kochi Prefectures, in Kii Strait and in Osaka Bay.Yunomine Hot Spring (Wakayama Prefecture) stopped. Yukiminato, Awa completely destroyed by tsunami and more than 1,700 houses washed away. 60 persons drowned at Awa.
1498: Meiō Nankai, Japan
Sep 20 7.5 Quake and tsunami hit in the Meiō era. Port in Wakayama damaged by tsunami of several meters in height.30-40 thousand deaths estimated. The building around great Buddha of Kamakura (altitude 7m) was swept away by the tsunami.
1541: Nueva Cadiz, Venezuela
In 1528, Cristóbal Guerra founded the city "La Villa de la Nueva Cádiz" in the island of Cubagua, the first Spanish settlement in Venezuela, and one of the first ones in the Americas. Nueva Cádiz, which reached a population between 1000 and 1500, was destroyed in an earthquake followed by tsunami in 1541. The ruins were declared a National Monument of Venezuela in 1979.
1605: Keichō Nankaido, Japan
On Feb 3 of the Keichō era, a 8.1 Quake and tsunami hit 700 houses (41%) at Hiro, Wakayama Prefecture washed away. 3,600 drowned in Shishikui area. Awa, wave height 6-7m. 350 at Kannoura 60 at Sakihama drowned, wave height 5–6 m and 8–10 m, respectively. Total more than 5,000 drowned. An enormous tsunami with a maximum known rise of water of 30 m was observed on the coast from the Boso Peninsula to the eastern part of Kyushu Island. The eastern part of the Boso Peninsula, the coast of Tokyo Bay, the coast of the prefectures of Kanagawa and Shizouka, and the southeastern coast of Kochi Prefecture suffered especially heavily.
1607: Bristol Channel, Great Britain
On 30 January 1607, approximately 2,000 or more people were drowned, houses and villages swept away and an estimated 200 square miles (518 km2) was inundated. Until the 1990s, it was undisputed that the flooding was caused by a storm surge aggravated by other factors, but recent research indicates a tsunami. The probable cause is postulated as a submarine earthquake off the Irish coast.